Answer to "What pedagogical methods are used to teach handover?"
The full range of methods a clinical teacher would expect have been used. Snowballing and similar excises have been employed in several published interventions to explore handover outside of healthcare, with this method being used to level out Inteprofessional preconceptions and often act as a precursor to practical activities.
Key has been methods that allow relevant mnemonics (e.g. I-PASS, SBAR) to be used in a situated context, often through simulation and role play. It is worth noting that without such education, these mnemonics are often misused as simple information organisation systems. As per the details below, it is how they are used that must be developed in teaching. If the example of SBAR is taken, in its NAVY origins, a full report should never take more than 20 seconds. However, in health practice this is rarely, if ever, given as guidance and as such the value of a focused mnemonic tools can be lost.
Gordon, M., Hill, E., Stojan, J. N. and Daniel, M. (2018) ‘Educational Interventions to Improve Handover in Health Care: An Updated Systematic Review’, Academic Medicine, 93(8), pp. 1234–1244. https://doi.org/10.1097/ACM.0000000000002236.
Starmer, A. J. M., O’Toole, J. K. M., Rosenbluth, G., Calaman, S., et al. (2014) ‘Development, Implementation, and Dissemination of the I-PASS Handoff Curriculum: A Multisite Educational Intervention to Improve Patient Handoffs’, Academic Medicine, 89(6), pp. 876–884. https://doi.org/10.1097/ACM.0000000000000264.
Wang, D., Sabri, E., Krmpotic, K. and Lobos, A. (2014) ‘137: Using SBAR (Situation, Background, Assessment and Recommendations) to Improve Resident Communication’, Paediatrics & Child Health, 19(6), pp. e83–e83. https://doi.org/10.1093/pch/19.6.e35-134.