Answer to "What are the important factors that influence the outcome of the flipped classroom teaching method?"

 

Here we list the aspects that are shown to influence the outcome of the flipped classroom teaching method:

Materials:

  • Content of the video or pre-class enrichment activity is insufficient (Kirvan, Rakes and Zamora, 2015).

  • Length of video (Weinstein, 2015).

  • Ease of the material (Persky, 2015).

  • Quality of the course including: quality of video, ‘flipped’ quality, group quality, classroom quality (Giuliano and Moser, 2016).

  • Availability of the internet access and computers (Nawi et al., 2015; Persky, 2015).

  • Class size (Albert and Beatty, 2014; Choi et al., 2015).

Motivation:

  • Students’ lack of engagement with pre-class preparation (McLaughlin et al., 2013; Gross et al., 2015).

  • The perceived importance of the topic (Giuliano and Moser, 2016).

  • Students’ lack of interest (Nawi et al., 2015). 

  • Additional workload for students and teachers (Snowden, 2012; Albert and Beatty, 2014; Nawi et al., 2015; O’Flaherty and Phillips, 2015; Sahin, Cavlazoglu and Zeytuncu, 2015; Lo and Hew, 2017).

  • Student accountability (Weinstein, 2015; Whelan et al., 2016).

  • Teacher’s attitude toward the flipped classroom, multimedia & online learning (Cheng and Weng, 2017).

Mastery:

  • Time management (Post, Deal and Hermanns, 2015).

  • Students’ skills in using information and communication technology (Moffett, 2015). 

  • Teachers’ experience and ability in designing the lessons, especial pre-class interactive, multimedia learning material (Snowden, 2012; Albert and Beatty, 2014; Nawi et al., 2015; Overmyer, 2015).

  • Students’ active learning skills (Choi et al., 2015).

  • Students’ frustrations (e.g. not able to ask a question, newness of the system)

References

Albert, M. and Beatty, B. J. (2014) ‘Flipping the Classroom Applications to Curriculum Redesign for an Introduction to Management Course: Impact on Grades’, Journal of Education for Business, 89(8), pp. 419–424. https://doi.org/10.1080/08832323.2014.929559.

Cheng, Y. and Weng, C. (2017) ‘Factors influence the digital media teaching of primary school teachers in a flipped class: A Taiwan case study’, South African Journal of Education, 37(1). https://doi.org/10.15700/saje.v37n1a1293.

Choi, H., Kim, J., Bang, K.-S., Park, Y.-H., et al. (2015) ‘Applying the Flipped Learning Model to an English-Medium Nursing Course’, Journal of Korean Academy of Nursing, 45(6), pp. 939–948.

https://doi.org/10.4040/jkan.2015.45.6.939.

Giuliano, C. A. and Moser, L. R. (2016) ‘Evaluation of a Flipped Drug Literature Evaluation Course’, American Journal of Pharmaceutical Education, 80(4), p. 66. https://doi.org/10.5688/ajpe80466.

Gross, D., Pietri, E. S., Anderson, G., Moyano-Camihort, K., et al. (2015) ‘Increased Preclass Preparation Underlies Student Outcome Improvement in the Flipped Classroom’, CBE—Life Sciences Education, 14(4), p. ar36. https://doi.org/10.1187/cbe.15-02-0040.

Kirvan, R., Rakes, C. R. and Zamora, R. (2015) ‘Flipping an Algebra Classroom: Analyzing, Modeling, and Solving Systems of Linear Equations’, Computers in the Schools, 32(3–4), pp. 201–223. https://doi.org/10.1080/07380569.2015.1093902.

Lo, C. K. and Hew, K. F. (2017) ‘A critical review of flipped classroom challenges in K-12 education: possible solutions and recommendations for future research’, Research and Practice in Technology Enhanced Learning, 12(1), p. 4. https://doi.org/10.1186/s41039-016-0044-2.

McLaughlin, J. E., Griffin, L. M., Esserman, D. A., Davidson, C. A., et al. (2013) ‘Pharmacy Student Engagement, Performance, and Perception in a Flipped Satellite Classroom’, American Journal of Pharmaceutical Education, 77(9), p. 196. https://doi.org/10.5688/ajpe779196.

Moffett, J. (2015) ‘Twelve tips for “flipping” the classroom’, Medical Teacher, 37(4), pp. 331–336. https://doi.org/10.3109/0142159X.2014.943710.

Nawi, N., Jawawi, R., Matzin, R., Jaidin, J. H., et al. (2015) ‘To Flip or Not to Flip: The Challenges and Benefits of Using Flipped Classroom in Geography Lessons in Brunei Darussalam’, Review of European Studies, 7(12), p. p133. https://doi.org/10.5539/res.v7n12p133.

O’Flaherty, J. and Phillips, C. (2015) ‘The use of flipped classrooms in higher education: A scoping review’, The Internet and Higher Education, 25, pp. 85–95. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.iheduc.2015.02.002.

Overmyer, J. (2015) ‘Research on Flipping College Algebra: Lessons Learned and Practical Advice for Flipping Multiple Sections’, PRIMUS, 25(9–10), pp. 792–802. https://doi.org/10.1080/10511970.2015.1045572.

Persky, A. M. (2015) ‘Qualitative Analysis of Animation versus Reading for Pre-Class Preparation in a “Flipped” Classroom’, Journal on Excellence in College Teaching, 26(1), pp. 5–28.

Post, J. L., Deal, B. and Hermanns, M. (2015) ‘Implementation of a flipped classroom: Nursing students’ perspectives’, Journal of Nursing Education and Practice, 5(6), p. 25. https://doi.org/10.5430/jnep.v5n6p25.

Sahin, A., Cavlazoglu, B. and Zeytuncu, Y. E. (2015) ‘Flipping a College Calculus Course: A Case Study’, Journal of Educational Technology & Society, 18(3), pp. 142–152.

Snowden, K. E. (2012) Teacher perceptions of the flipped classroom: Using video lectures online to replace traditional in-class lectures. University of North Texas. Available at: https://www.learntechlib.org/p/119238/ (Accessed: 7 March 2019).

Weinstein, R. D. (2015) ‘Improved Performance via the Inverted Classroom’, Chemical Engineering Education, 49(3), pp. 141–148.

Whelan, A., Leddy, J. J., Mindra, S., Hughes, J. D. M., et al. (2016) ‘Student perceptions of independent versus facilitated small group learning approaches to compressed medical anatomy education’, Anatomical Sciences Education, 9(1), pp. 40–51. https://doi.org/10.1002/ase.1544.

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