Answer to "What are the main limitations for the flipped classroom teaching method?"

Flipped classroom teaching method has been found to be suitable for undergraduate education, clinical clerkship (Heitz et al., 2015), nursing education (Critz and Knight, 2013), residency training (Bonnes et al., 2017), or even veterinary postgraduates (Moffett and Mill, 2014). However, a number of studies have reported the limitation of flipped classroom teaching method include:

  • Instructors using an online learning management system must ensure that students have access to the required technology and to a reliable Internet connection (Moffett and Mill, 2014).

  • Limited outcomes in clinical settings where instructors are not able to control the learning environment (Heitz et al., 2015).

  • Sometimes the pre-class learning rate (or engagement) is low (Kachka, 2012; Heitz et al., 2015).

  • Educators new to the flipped classroom method are likely to require additional support due:

    • added responsibility of preparing a variety of pre-class materials and assignments (e.g., video lectures and active learning classroom exercises) (Wagner, Laforge and Cripps, 2013; Talbert, 2014).

    • Lack of readiness, or enthusiasm, to undertake the task (Shimamoto, 2012; Snowden, 2012).

  • Outcomes can be short lived. For example, research has found that the effect of enhanced critical thinking, and peer learning from flipped classroom teaching were not long-lasting (van Vliet, Winnips and Brouwer, 2015).


Bonnes, S. L. M., Ratelle, J. T., Halvorsen, A. J. M., Carter, K. J., et al. (2017) ‘Flipping the Quality Improvement Classroom in Residency Education’, Academic Medicine, 92(1), pp. 101–107.

Critz, C. M. and Knight, D. (2013) ‘Using the Flipped Classroom in Graduate Nursing Education’, Nurse Educator, 38(5), pp. 210–213.

Heitz, C., Prusakowski, M., Willis, G. and Franck, C. (2015) ‘Does the Concept of the “Flipped Classroom” Extend to the Emergency Medicine Clinical Clerkship?’, Western Journal of Emergency Medicine, 16(6), pp. 851–855.

Kachka, P. (2012) ‘Understanding the Flipped Classroom: Part 1’, Faculty Focus | Higher Ed Teaching & Learning, 23 October. Available at: (Accessed: 7 March 2019).

Moffett, J. and Mill, A. C. (2014) ‘Evaluation of the flipped classroom approach in a veterinary professional skills course’, Advances in Medical Education and Practice, 5, pp. 415–425.

Shimamoto, D. (2012) ‘Implementing a Flipped Classroom: An Instructional Module’, in. Technology, Colleges, and Community Worldwide Online Conference. Available at: (Accessed: 7 March 2019).

Snowden, K. E. (2012) Teacher perceptions of the flipped classroom: Using video lectures online to replace traditional in-class lectures. University of North Texas. Available at: (Accessed: 7 March 2019).

Talbert, R. (2014) ‘Inverting the Linear Algebra Classroom’, PRIMUS, 24(5), pp. 361–374.

van Vliet, E. A., Winnips, J. C. and Brouwer, N. (2015) ‘Flipped-Class Pedagogy Enhances Student Metacognition and Collaborative-Learning Strategies in Higher Education But Effect Does Not Persist’, CBE—Life Sciences Education, 14(3), p. ar26.

Wagner, D., Laforge, P. and Cripps, D. (2013) ‘Lecture Material Retention: a First Trial Report on Flipped Classroom Strategies in Electronic Systems Engineering at the University of Regina’, Proceedings of the Canadian Engineering Education Association (CEEA).