Answer to "What is the exact definition of the flipped classroom teaching method?"

 

The flipped classroom has be variously defined across the literature as follows:

  • A flipped classroom (FC) is a blended and sequential learning activity where the learner engages in pre-work before participating in the live component (Tucker, 2012; Turco and Baron, 2016).

  • The FC is a hybrid approach, combining online learning and face-to-face classroom activities. In this pedagogical model, students engage in content learning before class, thereby maximising in-class time for active learning (DeLozier and Rhodes, 2017).

  • The FC utilises technology for pre-class learning, with face-to-face classrooms becoming interactive learning activities. This methodology restructures and reorders traditional lecture-based (LB) approaches by moving students, rather than teachers, to the centre of learning (McLaughlin et al., 2014; Harrington et al., 2015; Zawacki, Knutson and Keohane, 2016).

  • The flipped classroom (usually) involves students accessing materials online and then combining these activities with face-to-face interaction. Blended learning also does that, but in a different way.

  • Video-based instruction is not the only, or necessarily ‘‘best’’, way of delivering content, and an online virtual learning environment (VLE) presents an opportunity to support flexible, learner-centred material (Ellaway and Masters, 2008). For example, students are given the choice of learning about a topic through viewing a video, reading a paper, or completing a computer-assisted learning module; the formats are different but the course material and learning outcomes remain the same (Moffett, 2015).

  • However, Bishop & Verleger (2013) restrict their definition of FC to exclude designs that do not employ videos as an outside of the classroom activity: The flipped classroom is a new pedagogical method, which employs asynchronous video lectures and practice problems as homework, and active, group-based problem-solving activities in the classroom (Bishop and Verleger, 2013).

  • Yarbro and colleagues (2014) emphasised the importance of active learning engagement as the defining characteristic of flipped learning.

  • Flipped classroom is ‘‘an educational technique that consists of two parts: inter- active group learning activities inside the classroom and direct computer-based individual instruction outside the classroom’’ (Bishop and Verleger, 2013)

References

Bishop, J. and Verleger, M. A. (2013) ‘The Flipped Classroom: A Survey of the Research’, in. ASEE Conferences. Available at: https://peer.asee.org/22585. (Accessed: 7 March 2019)

DeLozier, S. J. and Rhodes, M. G. (2017) ‘Flipped Classrooms: a Review of Key Ideas and Recommendations for Practice’, Educational Psychology Review, 29(1), pp. 141–151. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10648-015-9356-9.

Ellaway, D. R. and Masters, K. (2008) ‘AMEE Guide 32: e-Learning in medical education Part 1: Learning, teaching and assessment’, Medical Teacher, 30(5), pp. 455–473. https://doi.org/10.1080/01421590802108331.

Harrington, S. A., Bosch, M. V., Schoofs, N., Beel-Bates, C., et al. (2015) ‘Quantitative Outcomes for Nursing Students in a Flipped Classroom’, Nursing Education Perspectives, 36(3), pp. 179–181. https://doi.org/10.5480/13-1255.

McLaughlin, J. E., Roth, M. T. P., Glatt, D. M., Gharkholonarehe, N. P., et al. (2014) ‘The Flipped Classroom:  A Course Redesign to Foster Learning and Engagement in a Health Professions School’, Academic Medicine, 89(2), pp. 236–243. https://doi.org/10.1097/ACM.0000000000000086.

Moffett, J. (2015) ‘Twelve tips for “flipping” the classroom’, Medical Teacher, 37(4), pp. 331–336. https://doi.org/10.3109/0142159X.2014.943710.

Tucker, B. (2012) The Flipped Classroom, Education Next. Available at: https://www.educationnext.org/the-flipped-classroom/  Accessed: 7 March 2019).

Turco, M. G. and Baron, R. B. (2016) ‘Observations on the 2016 World Congress on Continuing Professional Development: Advancing Learning and Care in the Health Professions’, Journal of Continuing Education in the Health Professions, 36, p. S4. https://doi.org/10.1097/CEH.0000000000000106.

Yarbro, J., Arfstrom, K. M., McKnight, K. and McKnight, P. (2014) Extension of a review of flipped learning. Flipped Learning Network/Pearson/George Mason University. Available at: https://flippedlearning.org/wp-

content/uploads/2016/07/Extension-of-FLipped-Learning-LIt-Review-June-2014.pdf (Accessed: 7 March 2019)

Zawacki, A., Knutson, M. and Keohane, E. M. (2016) ‘A Student-Centered Active Learning Approach to Teaching Anemias in a Medical Laboratory Science Hospital-based Program.’, Clinical Laboratory Science, 29(2).

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