Answer to "What is the exact definition of the flipped classroom teaching method?"
The flipped classroom has be variously defined across the literature as follows:
A flipped classroom (FC) is a blended and sequential learning activity where the learner engages in pre-work before participating in the live component (Tucker, 2012; Turco and Baron, 2016).
The FC is a hybrid approach, combining online learning and face-to-face classroom activities. In this pedagogical model, students engage in content learning before class, thereby maximising in-class time for active learning (DeLozier and Rhodes, 2017).
The FC utilises technology for pre-class learning, with face-to-face classrooms becoming interactive learning activities. This methodology restructures and reorders traditional lecture-based (LB) approaches by moving students, rather than teachers, to the centre of learning (McLaughlin et al., 2014; Harrington et al., 2015; Zawacki, Knutson and Keohane, 2016).
The flipped classroom (usually) involves students accessing materials online and then combining these activities with face-to-face interaction. Blended learning also does that, but in a different way.
Video-based instruction is not the only, or necessarily ‘‘best’’, way of delivering content, and an online virtual learning environment (VLE) presents an opportunity to support flexible, learner-centred material (Ellaway and Masters, 2008). For example, students are given the choice of learning about a topic through viewing a video, reading a paper, or completing a computer-assisted learning module; the formats are different but the course material and learning outcomes remain the same (Moffett, 2015).
However, Bishop & Verleger (2013) restrict their definition of FC to exclude designs that do not employ videos as an outside of the classroom activity: The flipped classroom is a new pedagogical method, which employs asynchronous video lectures and practice problems as homework, and active, group-based problem-solving activities in the classroom (Bishop and Verleger, 2013).
Yarbro and colleagues (2014) emphasised the importance of active learning engagement as the defining characteristic of flipped learning.
Flipped classroom is ‘‘an educational technique that consists of two parts: inter- active group learning activities inside the classroom and direct computer-based individual instruction outside the classroom’’ (Bishop and Verleger, 2013)
Bishop, J. and Verleger, M. A. (2013) ‘The Flipped Classroom: A Survey of the Research’, in. ASEE Conferences. Available at: https://peer.asee.org/22585. (Accessed: 7 March 2019)
DeLozier, S. J. and Rhodes, M. G. (2017) ‘Flipped Classrooms: a Review of Key Ideas and Recommendations for Practice’, Educational Psychology Review, 29(1), pp. 141–151. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10648-015-9356-9.
Ellaway, D. R. and Masters, K. (2008) ‘AMEE Guide 32: e-Learning in medical education Part 1: Learning, teaching and assessment’, Medical Teacher, 30(5), pp. 455–473. https://doi.org/10.1080/01421590802108331.
Harrington, S. A., Bosch, M. V., Schoofs, N., Beel-Bates, C., et al. (2015) ‘Quantitative Outcomes for Nursing Students in a Flipped Classroom’, Nursing Education Perspectives, 36(3), pp. 179–181. https://doi.org/10.5480/13-1255.
McLaughlin, J. E., Roth, M. T. P., Glatt, D. M., Gharkholonarehe, N. P., et al. (2014) ‘The Flipped Classroom: A Course Redesign to Foster Learning and Engagement in a Health Professions School’, Academic Medicine, 89(2), pp. 236–243. https://doi.org/10.1097/ACM.0000000000000086.
Moffett, J. (2015) ‘Twelve tips for “flipping” the classroom’, Medical Teacher, 37(4), pp. 331–336. https://doi.org/10.3109/0142159X.2014.943710.
Tucker, B. (2012) The Flipped Classroom, Education Next. Available at: https://www.educationnext.org/the-flipped-classroom/ Accessed: 7 March 2019).
Turco, M. G. and Baron, R. B. (2016) ‘Observations on the 2016 World Congress on Continuing Professional Development: Advancing Learning and Care in the Health Professions’, Journal of Continuing Education in the Health Professions, 36, p. S4. https://doi.org/10.1097/CEH.0000000000000106.
Yarbro, J., Arfstrom, K. M., McKnight, K. and McKnight, P. (2014) Extension of a review of flipped learning. Flipped Learning Network/Pearson/George Mason University. Available at: https://flippedlearning.org/wp-
content/uploads/2016/07/Extension-of-FLipped-Learning-LIt-Review-June-2014.pdf (Accessed: 7 March 2019)
Zawacki, A., Knutson, M. and Keohane, E. M. (2016) ‘A Student-Centered Active Learning Approach to Teaching Anemias in a Medical Laboratory Science Hospital-based Program.’, Clinical Laboratory Science, 29(2).