Answer to "What are some key references on Equality, Diversity, and Inclusion in medical education?"


The references below are those that should help teachers understand some of the work that has been undertaken in diversity. Further reference sources are provided in relation to each of the other questions relating to EDI and included at the end.


The references below to some extent reflect a US and UK bias, but the chapter in Understanding Medical Education by Dogra and Carter-Pokras has a wider view. This also has an extensive reference list that may be of some help.



Anderson, L. M., Scrimshaw, S. C., Fullilove, M. T., Fielding, J. E., et al. (2003) ‘Culturally competent healthcare systems: A systematic review’, American Journal of Preventive Medicine, 24(3, Supplement), pp. 68–79.

Betancourt, J. R. (2003) ‘Cross-cultural Medical Education: Conceptual Approaches and Frameworks for Evaluation’, Academic Medicine, 78(6), p. 560.

Betancourt, J. R., Green, A. R., Carrillo, J. E. and Ananeh-Firempong, O. (2003) ‘Defining Cultural Competence: A Practical Framework for Addressing Racial/Ethnic Disparities in Health and Health Care’, Public Health Reports, 118(4), pp. 293–302.

Dogra, N., Bhatti, F., Ertubey, C., Kelly, M., et al. (2016) ‘Teaching diversity to medical undergraduates: Curriculum development, delivery and assessment. AMEE GUIDE No. 103’, Medical Teacher, 38(4), pp. 323–337.

Dogra, N. and Carter-Pokras, O. (2018) ‘Diversity in Medical Education’, in Understanding Medical Education: Evidence, Theory and Practice. 3rd edn. Wiley Blackwell, pp. 513–530.

Dogra, N., Reitmanova, S. and Carter-Pokras, O. (2009) ‘Twelve tips for teaching diversity and embedding it in the medical curriculum’, Medical Teacher, 31(11), pp. 990–993.

Karnik, N. S. and Dogra, N. (2010) ‘The Cultural Sensibility Model: A Process-Oriented Approach for Children and Adolescents’, Child and Adolescent Psychiatric Clinics, 19(4), pp. 719–737.

Kleinman, A. and Benson, P. (2006) ‘Anthropology in the Clinic: The Problem of Cultural Competency and How to Fix It’, PLOS Medicine, 3(10), p. e294.

Equality Act (2010). Available at:  (Accessed: 4 March 2019).

Tervalon, M. and Murray-García, J. (1998) ‘Cultural Humility Versus Cultural Competence: A Critical Distinction in Defining Physician Training Outcomes in Multicultural Education’, Journal of Health Care for the Poor and Underserved, 9(2), pp. 117–125.